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May 2021

The Islamic Invaders and the History of Loot

ইসলামিক আক্রমণ এবং লুটপাটের ইতিহাস - জয়দীপ গোস্বামী

ভারতীয় ইতিহাস তার প্রতিটি পৃষ্ঠাতে ফুটিয়ে তুলেছে রোমাঞ্চ, বিস্ময়, নৃশংসতা এবং বর্বরতা। এই প্রতিটি পৃষ্ঠা আমাদের মানবপটে প্রতি কোনো না কোনো বিস্ময়কর চিত্র ফুটিয়ে তুলছে। যার এক একটা কাহিনি এত মর্মান্তিক যে তা এক সম্রদায়ের পক্ষে অসহনীয় হয়ে উঠেছে। তেমনই এক ঘটনা হলো মুসলিম কর্তৃক হিন্দু মন্দির লুন্ঠন। 
ভারত নানা সময়ে নানা বৈদেশিক হানাদার দের দ্বারা আক্রান্ত হয়েছিল। যার ফলে ভারতের প্রচুর সম্পদ ভারত থেকে লুন্ঠিত সামগ্রী রূপে অন্য স্থানে স্থানান্তর হয়ে গেছল। এই লুঠতরাজ পর্বের সূচনা হয় মুসলিম হানাদার দের ভারতে হানা দেওয়ার পর থেকে। যার ফলে বিপুল পরিমাণে ভারতীয় ধনসম্পদ আরব, পারস্য, ইরাক, গজনির মতো মুসলিম প্রধান অঞ্চল গুলিতে স্থানান্তরিত হয়। বিগত ১ম খ্রীস্টাব্দ থেকে ১০০০ খ্রীস্টাব্দ পর্যন্ত ভারতের অর্থনীতি বাকি দেশ গুলোর থেকে অনেক উন্নত ছিলো। এই মুসলিম আগ্রাসনের পর থেকে ভারত তার গৌরব হারায়। 
ভারতে বিভিন্ন সময়ে বিভিন্ন ব্যাক্তির আগমন ঘটেছিলো। যাদের কারো উদ্দেশ্য ছিলো শিক্ষা, আবার কারোর রাষ্ট্রদূত হিসেবে ভারত ভ্রমণ। তারা এই ভ্রমণ সম্পর্কে প্রতিবেদন রচনা করেন। ভারতে প্রায় বহির্বিশ্বের সব স্থান থেকেই পর্যটন, পরিভ্রমণ করতে আসেন। তারা তাদের ভ্রমণ বৃত্তান্তে ভারতের রূপমহিমা বর্ণনা করেছেন। তারা উল্লেখ করেছেন যে ভারতের মাটিতে সোনা আর জলে রূপোর চাষ হয়, অর্থাৎ ভারত চিরকালই শস্যশ্যামলা দ্বারা পরিবৃত। এই সব বিবরণ এর পর থেকে বহির্বিশ্বের কাছে ভারত সম্পর্কে কৌতুহল বাড়তে থাকে, যার ফল স্বরূপ হানাদার রা ভারতের বুকে পা রাখে।  এই পর্বের সূচনা হয় মুসলিম দের ভারত আগমনের পর থেকে। ভারতে প্রথম মুসলিম আগমন ঘটে ৭৫৭ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে মহম্মদ বিন কাশিম এর নেতৃত্বে। এই সময় মুসলিম বাহিনী সিন্ধ অঞ্চলে নিজের প্রভাব বিস্তার করতে সক্ষম হয়েছিল। এই সময় তারা বেশ কিছু ধনসম্পদ লুঠ করে। এর পর আফগানিস্তানের পার্বত্য অঞ্চল দিয়ে ক্রমাগত মুসলিম দের আগমন ঘটতে থাকে। 
সব থেকে নৃশংস লুঠতরাজ হয়েছিল মুসলিম দের দ্বারা। চিরাচরিত হিন্দু রাজতন্ত্রের অবসান ঘটিয়ে মুসলিম আগ্রাসন। প্রথম দিকে এই মুসলিম রা স্বাধীন ভাবে বসবাস করার জন্য ভারতে আসেনি। তারা কেবল ধনভাণ্ডার লুঠ করার জন্য ভারতে আসত। এই আগ্রাসনের তীব্রতার ফলে ভারতীয় ঐতিহ্য লুন্ঠিত হয়েছিল। 
এই রকমই একজন হানাদার হলেন গজনির সুলতান মামুদ। ১০০০ খ্রীস্টাব্দ থেকে ১০২৭ খ্রীঃ এর মধ্যে ১৭ বার ভারত আক্রমণ করেন। তার এই আগমনের প্রধান উদ্দেশ্য ছিলো ভারতের সম্পদ লুঠ করা স্থায়ী ভাবে বাস করা না। তিনি উত্তর ভারতের অনেক জায়গা তে হানা দেন। তিনি ভারত থেকে প্রচুর সম্পদ লুঠ করে নিজের দেশে নিয়ে যান। তাঁর এই নৃশংসতার একটু ধারণা দেওয়া যাক— 
তুর্কিস্তান এর অন্যতম প্রধান জনপদ হলো এই গজনি। এই গজনি তে বিভিন্ন সময়ে বিভিন্ন রাজা শাসন করেছেন। উল্লেখযোগ্য সুলতান হলেন আলপ্তগিন, এবং এই আলপ্তগীনের মৃত্যুর পর ৯৭৭ সালে গজনির সিংহাসনে বসেন সবুক্তগীন। 
 
৯৯৮ সালে গজনির সিংহাসনে মামুদ আরোহন করেন। তিনি গজনিকে তার সাম্রাজ্যের রাজধানী করেছিলেন। মামুদ ২৭ বছর বয়সে সুলতান উপাধি গ্রহন করেন। এরই পর থেকে সুলতান উপাধি গ্রহনের ধারা শুরু হয়। 
 
মামুদের এই ভারতে হানা দেওয়ার নেপথ্যের কারণ সম্পর্কে ঐতিহাসিক ও অর্থনীতিবিদ দের মতে —
 ভারতের বিপুল ধনসম্পদ লুঠ করাই ছিল তার এক মাত্র উদ্দেশ্য। 
 তিনি ইসলাম ধর্মের সম্প্রসারণ এর উদ্দেশ্যে ভারতের মাটিতে পা দিয়েছিলেন। 
 পশ্চিম ভারতের শক্তিশালী রাজপুতদের মধ্যে ঐক্যের অভাব দেখা দিয়েছিল। তারা পরস্পর বিবাদে নিমজ্জ থাকত এই সুযোগে গজনি ভারতে প্রবেশ করেন ।
ভারতে মামুদের কর্মকাণ্ডের একটা তালিকা দেওয়া যাক— 
 মামুদ ১০০০ খ্রীঃ থেকে ১০২৭ খ্রীঃ পর্যন্ত ১৭ বার ভারত আক্রমণ করে। 
 ১০০০ খ্রীঃ প্রথম বার আক্রমণ করে বর্তমানে আফগানিস্তান এবং পাকিস্তান অঞ্চলে। 
 ১০০৫ খ্রীঃ হানা দেয় ভাটিয়া অঞ্চলে। 
 ১০০৬ খ্রীঃ মুলতানে আক্রমণ করেন। 
 ১০০৭ সালে ভাতিন্ডাতে হানা দেন। 
 ১০১১ সালে পাঞ্জাব পার্বত্য অঞ্চলে লুঠপাট চালান। 
 ১০১৩ সালে পাকিস্তান এবং পূর্ব আফগানিস্তানের বেশ কিছু অঞ্চলে। 
 ১০১৪ খ্রীস্টাব্দে থানেশ্বর শিব মন্দিরে লুঠ করে প্রায় ধংস করেন। 
 ১০১৫ সালে কাশ্মিরে আক্রমণ করেন। 
 ১০১৮ সালে মথুরা লুঠ করেন। এই সময় মথুরা উজাড় হয়ে গেছিল। 
 ১০২১ সালে কনৌজ আক্রমণ করেন। 
 ১০২৩ গোয়ালিয়র এর লুঠপাট চালান। 
 ১০২৭ সালে শেষবারের মতো আক্রমণ করেন সোমনাথ মন্দিরে। বাকি সব লুন্ঠনের থেকে এর ভয়াবহতা অনেক বেশি। সোমনাথ মন্দির ধ্বংস করেন তিনি। মন্দিরের সব ধনভাণ্ডার আত্মসাৎ করেন। সোমনাথ মন্দির তার এই বিপুল ধনসম্পদের জন্য প্রসিদ্ধ ছিল। 
 ৩দিন ধরে তিনি এই মন্দিরে লুঠ চালান। মন্দিরের সব সম্পদ লুঠ করেন। রাজপুত শক্তি তার বিরোধ করার চেষ্টা করেছিলেন। কিন্তু তারা সক্ষম হননি। প্রায় ৫হাজার হিন্দু এই বর্বরতার কারণে মারা গিয়েছিলেন। 
 তার এই লুঠ এর পরিমাণ ছিলো প্রায় ২০ মিলিয়ন দিনার, যা বাকি সব লুঠপাটের ৮গুন। তিনি শুধু লুঠ করেই ক্ষান্ত থাকতেন না। তিনি মন্দিরে কারুকার্য ধ্বংস করেন। লিঙ্গ ধ্বংস করেন। 
 
তিনি ভারতবাসী দের কাছে লুঠেরা হিসেবে পরিচিত হলেও তিনি ছিলেন তার রাজ্যের এক আদর্শ রাজা। তিনি এই লুন্ঠিত সম্পদ দিয়ে তার রাজধানীকে ঢেলে সাজিয়েছিলেন। গজনির শ্রী বৃদ্ধি করেছিলেন। তিনি যে শুধু ধনভাণ্ডার লুঠ করতেই ভারতে এসেছিলেন তা কিন্তু নয়। তিনি ভারতের মহল শিল্প কর্ম স্থাপত্য ভাষ্কর্য দেখে মুগ্ধ হয়েছিলেন। তাই তিনি ভারত থেকে নানা উন্নত মানের শিল্পী দের অপহরণ করে নিজের রাজ্যে নিয়ে যান নিজের রাজ্যে মহল নির্মাণ হেতু। 
 ১২০৬ সালে মহম্মদ ঘুরির নেতৃত্বে মুসলিম বাহিনী ভারতে বিজয় লাভ করে তরাইনের ২য় যুদ্ধে। মহম্মদ ঘুরিও প্রচুর পরিমানে সম্পদ লুঠ করেন। পরবর্তী কালে কুতুবউদ্দিন আইবকের দ্বারা প্রতিষ্ঠিত দাস বংস হিন্দু দের ওপর অত্যাচার চালায়। 
 
ভারতে লুঠতরাজ শুরু হয় ভারতে মোঘল সাম্রাজ্যের প্রতিষ্ঠার পর থেকে। মোঘল সাম্রাজ্য হলো ভারতের ইতিহাসে সবথেকে দীর্ঘদিন ধরে চলা এক মুসলিম বংস। ইব্রাহিম লোদি কে পানিপথের প্রথম যুদ্ধে সিংহাসন চ্যুত করার পর তিনি ভারতের রাজকোষের চাবি হাতে পান। এর পর তিনি এই সম্পদের অপব্যবহার শুরু করেন। তিনি কেবল এই সম্পদ মুসলিম দের জন্য ব্যবহার করেন। বাবর তাঁর আত্মজীবনী বাবার নামাতে উল্লেখ করেন তিনি ছিলে ভগবানের দ্বারা প্রেরিত খোরসান, সমরখন্দ, মক্কার মধ্যে সবথেকে ধার্মিক ব্যাক্তি। তিনি তার সম্পত্তি সেনাবাহিনীর মধ্যে বিনিয়োগ করেন যার ফলে তার সেনাবাহিনী তে যোগ দেবার জন্য উতসাহ চরমে পৌছেছিল। 
এই সময় মন্দির গুলিকে ধ্বংস করে সেখানে মসজিদ নির্মান করার প্রবনতা দেখা দেয়। এই ক্ষেত্রে ঔরঙ্গজেব উল্লেখযোগ্য ভূমিকা পালন করেন। তিনি মথুরার মন্দির গুলি ধ্বংস করে সেখানে মসজিদ নির্মান করেন। তিনি মথুরার সম্পদ লুঠ করেন। 
এক দেশের সম্পদ লুঠ করে অন্য জায়গাতে স্থানান্তর এর পক্রিয়া মর্মান্তিক। এই লুঠ এর ফলে মোঘল সরকারের ওপর সাধারণ মানুষ আস্থা হারায়। 
এক দেশের সম্পদ লুঠ করে অন্য এক দেশ কে সমৃদ্ধ করা ফলে কি সত্যি কি সেই দেশ সমৃদ্ধ হয়? ভারতের যে পরিমান সম্পদ লুন্ঠিত হয়েছে, ওই সম্পদ যদি ভারতে থাকতো তাহলে ভারত আরও সমৃদ্ধ হতো। 

May 2021: Art

Gajamukha - Dr. Srilatha Bhargava

Awakening - Dr. Srilatha Bhargava

About Dr. Srilatha Bhargava:-

Dr. Srilatha Bhargava, a qualified Dental Surgeon from India has completed her PhD from Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Being a creative personality and passionate about Bharath, she loves to bring alive its traditions and culture by means of artistic doodling, dot painting and acrylic canvas painting. COVID times has energized her and given ample time to explore this creativity by experimenting on various themes and genres. Based on the outcome of this creative pursuit and encouraged by family, she is now undertaking commissioned orders based on various concepts and themes.

Holi with Krishna

Holi with Krishna - Mira Narayan

It’s finally that time of the year when Shri Krishna paints our lives with myriad hues of ecstasy. YAAYY!! It’s Holi. So here are 9 reasons for you to play Holi in the very land of Krishna – Mathura Vrindavan.

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THE STORY:
So one day our little Krishna was upset about his dark skin & complained to his mother – “O re Maiya, why am I so dark and Radha so fair. Will she accept me with my shyam Rang?”

Hearing her little son, Yashoda Maiya came up with a plan. She advised Kanha to go and ask Radha to splash Him with any color she wants to see him in. This is how this beautiful festival of Holi began.

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LATHMAR HOLI:
So Krishna went to Barsana to play Holi with Radha. But as natkhat as he was, he went on to tease our darling Radha. Angry with his advances Radha & her friends chased krishna with a ‘lathi’ & drove him out of Barsana.

This is how this festival got its name Lathmar. Every year men of Nandgoan is greeted by womem of Barsana with sticks to recreate the Radha krishna leela. And if a man fails to protect himself, he gets captured by the women. Radharani temple at Barsana is where this Holi is celebrated.

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PHOOLON  KI  HOLI:
On Ekadashi prior to Holi, the Banke Bihari temple at Vrindavan celebrates this unique style of Holi where only flowers are used, to play with each other and hence the name Phoolon wali Holi.

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WIDOW’S  HOLI:

A riot of colors took over the 400-year-old Gopinath temple at Mathura as hundreds of widows, clad in white sarees, smeared hues of red, yellow, and green on each other. This Holi was started from Pagla baba widow ashram.

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HOLIKA DAHAN:

We all know the story of Prahlad & how he was saved by Vishnu himself for his sheer devotion. This ritual of Holika dahan is to symbolically commemorate the same act of Victory of devotion over evil.

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HURANGA:
A little away from Mathura is Dauji temple that comes alive by men not just getting beaten up but stripped of their upper garment by women. The tradition dates back to 500 years when this Dauji Krishna temple was established.

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DHULANDI HOLI:
A colorful procession takes place through the streets of Mathura after the Holi festivities in Vrindavan get over. Starting from Vishram Ghat, the procession stops at Holi Gate. The various colours of the festival can be best enjoyed en-route, between the two landmarks. Vehicles decorated with flowers, with kids impersonating Radha-Krishna are the key attractions of the procession.

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RANG PANCHAMI:
As the name says, Rang Panchami is celebrated after 5th day of holi. As the air gets purified with the fire of Holi Dahan, symbolising the purification from Rajas & Tamas guna, Rang Panchami invokes purity with the 5 elements of spirituality.

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BANKE BIHARI HOI:
As the tradition of the temple goes, Lord Krishna dressed in white is brought closer to the devotees (an impersonation) and he showers them with Gulaal and colors. The priests follow suit and throw colors and flowers on everyone.

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DWARKADHEESH
The Dwarkadheesh temple in Mathura is home to the biggest celebration on Holi after all this place is closest to our Kanha. We should be part of this festivity at least once in our life to feel the divine presence of Krishna.

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🎆Disclaimer: All rights and credits of the photographs used in this thread solely lies with the photographers.

🎆Story Source: Various

Consecration

Consecration - Soumik Kumar De

A structure of  red brick

Or of marvelous marbles

Or an  echoing hollow tomb

But for you

But for me.

A cask for wine

Or tray of flowers

Or a designed rug

But for you

But for me.

 A pray of whisper

 Or one with loud speaker

 Or a holy gesture

But for you

But for me.

A flickering candle

Or a smoky bundle

Or a burning pyre.

But for you

But for me.

A veiled hijab

Or a cosy cassock

Or even a divine dhoti

But for you

But for me

Why for you

Why for me

Why for him? 

Fuse them

Blend them

Merge them

Only to say

But for us

But for us.

About Soumik De:-

Soumik Kumar De is a poet by passion and a teacher by profession. A postgraduate and Master of Philosophy in English literature, Mr. De has been severally anthologized in publications of international repute like Setu, INNSAEI, Borderless, The Indian Rover, Lipi, AWS e-zine, Literoma etc. His poems have been included in internationally acclaimed books like Aulos: An Anthology of Poems; Caravan; Paradise on Earth; Earth, Fire Water Wind, CYAN: An Anthology of Confessional Poetry to name a few. Painting is another of his special area of interest. His oil paints have been included in many internationally acclaimed books.

The Sanatana Dharma

The Sanatana Dharma - Saheb Ghosh

Who teaches us to make kind our heart,
Who makes us spiritually smart.
Says and shows fruit gets as Karma,
That’s nothing other than Santana dharma.

Monks like Vivekananda has given proof,
The Sanatana dharma is all dharma’s roof.
It has the prowess to tolerate other religions’ weight,
To get spiritually peace, one must not wait.

All dharmas of the world are tied up with it,
It’s enough for other, Sanatana dharma’s a little bit.
It teaches to love everyone and respect,
There is God, even in a little insect. How much praise you do, it will be less;
When one drown, he observes the neatness

About Saheb Shosh:-

Saheb Ghosh, a man of kind heart. He extremely believes in god’s existence and also believes that God is the reason behind all the happenings. He thinks that without honesty no magnificent work can be done. He takes care of trees and his family also. He writes short stories and poems in magazines both in Bengali and English.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj - Akash Bhat

LESSER-KNOWN DETAILS ABOUT THE BATTLE OF PRATAPGAD

In the year 1659 Adil shah sent Afzal khan with the army of 75000 soldiers to destroy Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj with his empire. He was the main soldier, warrior and minister in Adil Shahi Sultanate. 

He was the Subedar of Wai province. He was very powerful physically. His height was 7.3 ft. due to the same he was very popular as a strong man from Adil Shahi Sultanate. Whole India was not daring to fight with Adil Shahi Sultanate due to Afzal Khan.

Badi Begum Sahiba of Adilshahi Sultanate sent him to kill Chhatrapati Shivaji on any cost. He started his operation against Chhatrapati Shivaji from “wai”. He destroyed many temples like Tulja Bhavani Temple. He destroyed so many villages, killed villagers to torture Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

                                                                                                        DETAILED VIEW ABOUT THE WHOLE BATTLE 

Chhatrapati Shivaji chose Pantaji as a lawyer to communicate with Afzal Khan. Pantaji was very sharp minded, who did his job nicely. He presented Chhatrapati Shivaji is fearing Afzal Khan and he wanted to invite him in his kingdom near Pratapgad. Pantaji succeeded in the communication with Afzal Khan and he brought him as per the planning of Chhatrapati Shivaji. 

He used very polite language to convince Afzal Khan. In every letter he showed himself weak in front of Afzal Khan. Both of them met in a tent at foothills of Pratapgad fort on 10th November’1659. In the battle of Pratapgad, Jiva Mahale was selected by Chhatrapati Shivaji as a bodyguard during the meeting with Afzal Khan. Chhatrapati Shivaji instructed him to pay attention only on the bodyguard of the Afzal Khan named Sayyed Banda. 

As per the instruction, Jiva Mahale just concentrated on Sayyed Banda, He never involved himself in the encounter between Chhatrapati Shivaji and Afzal Khan. In the meeting with Afzal Khan he prepared himself to take defense from Afzal Khan’s any attack.

He used bullet proof jacket inside the clothes and a head guard inside the crown. Both things saved his life during the encounter with Afzal Khan. Afzal Khan called Shivaji to hug him. Shivaji was alert, finally khan caught Shivaji & attacked with weapon khanjeer. 

Shivaji used waghnakh & torn the stomach of Afzal Khan. Chhatrapati Shivaji used Wagh Nakh to kill him. Sayyed Banda attacked on Chhatrapati Shivaji at the same time, Jiva Mahale cut down Banda’s hand from the shoulder.

Jiva Mahale followed the instruction which was given by Chhatrapati Shivaji. Chhatrapati Shivaji killed Afzal Khan diplomatically. He signalled his troops to start the great assault on the Adil Shahi Sultanate

With minimum manpower Chhatrapati Shivaji gained big victory against Adilshahi. He killed Afzal Khan and gained lot of wealth which was the great damage to Adil Shahi Sultanate . The most appreciable thing is the diplomacy played by Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

Swing of Survival

Swing of Survival - Aadil Zeffer

Everyone! Live placid with paltry means.

Look for a grace, not opulence

and politesse, not couture.

Let’s hearken all, with honest heart

and to affairs, together we sprint never.

For doubt is harsh and malefic at times.

So, acquire skills to withstand it,

through fables which feed us

and fling past failings,

and perception of imperfections.

We know, marvellous feats eventuate when,

we get sincere with self.

So, let’s begin working with love

and steer the swing of survival.

About Aadil Zeffer :-

Aadil Zeffer is an internationally experienced English Faculty, having more than 5-years of teaching experience in India and abroad. He has more than 200 Certificates to his credit which includes Ph.D. in English (pursuing), M.Phil., Master’s Degrees in various Subjects, CELTA from University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, CIF from CEBP France, A Course in RSE from Russia, CII from Parola Italy, CIS from ELE Spain, Faculty Development Courses from KSA, a Course in Neurosciences from IIT Kanpur, a Course in Research Methodology from IIT Kharagpur, PGDL, CTE, B.Ed. etc. He is an author of An Educational Supplement and is presently working on two more books entitled Convergence and Precarious Preamble.

Shree Ram Stuti

Shree Ram Stuti - Ankit Raj

Oh Rama, the scion of Raghu, who gives happiness to Sita, the destroyer of Ravana and all other Daityas. 

To him, the lotus eyed Rama, who is the destroyer of Asuras, the youthful  king, and the Suzerain of all the qualities, 

to Keshava, who holds the Earth, to the best archer, to Vishnu, to my king,  Lord Rama, 

to the slayer of ten headed Ravana and to the son of Dasarath, May Victory  come. May he bless us! 

Lord Raghuvar, who is the Husband of Videha’s daughter, his forehead is  always Shining with a halo of fire. 

The cosmos shook when he put his fingers on his bow, causing immense  cacophony in the world. 

To him, who made the Dandaka Vana beautiful and who held his devotees  in his compassionate heart, 

to the slayer of ten headed Ravana and to the son of Dasarath, May Victory  come. May he bless us! 

I bow to Rama, the modest and the best of men, who is the best in qualities  and Guru to the whole world, 

who freed Devi Ahilya of her curse and who frees his devotees of hundreds  of sins, 

the giver of all the Siddhis and nine Nidhis, to Achyuta, to Lord Rama, the  lord of this world, 

to the slayer of ten headed Ravana and to the son of Dasarath, May Victory  come. May he bless us! 

My mind and my intellect are unhewn and lowly. I only worship the dust of  your feet. 

By knowledge, I am poor. How do I see your image, O! Hari?

I have done many sins. Free me from all my demerits and misconducts. To the slayer of ten headed Ravana and to the son of Dasarath, May Victory come. May he bless us!

How and why Aurangzeb destroyed the Kashi Vishwananth Mandir as described in the Maasir-I-Alamgiri.

How and why Aurangzeb destroyed the Kashi Vishwananth Mandir as described in the Maasir-I-Alamgiri - Savitri Mumukshu

As the UP court allows an ASI survey of Gyanvapi Mosque, the usual suspects are crying foul that it sets the stage for demolition of yet another mosque and any changes will violate Muslim rights. 

In reality, even without ASI investigating the site for further evidence, Aurangzeb’s court records in the Maasir-I-Alamgiri provide undeniable proof of his deliberate destruction of the Kashi Vishwanath Mandir in order to construct a mosque in its place. This practice was employed by him at many of Hinduism’s holiest sites, in order to create visible symbols of the defeat of Hindui Kafirs at the hands of Muslims. His motivations were purely religious and the goal was to establish the supremacy of Islam over Hindu places of worship, which he considered the dens of evil. Audrey Truschke and apologists of her ilk can disguise these instances of the height of intolerance, any way they want, but the proof has been provided by Auranzeb himself in the form of his Firmans (royal decrees).

Varanasi’s Gyanvyapi Mosque built over the original site of the Kashi Vishwanath Temple, pieces of the demolished temple were shamelessly integrated into the Mosque structure as a visible symbol of the defeat of Hindus at the hands of Islam.

The Persian Maasir-I-Alamgiri written by chronicler Saqi Mustad Khan is an annal of the events which occurred during the reign of Aurangzeb-Alamgir, the last Mughal Emperor of India. The work is based upon documentary evidence, & translated by Jadunath Sarkar, in a condensed form. Several excerpts from the book clearly describe the destruction of the Kashi and Mathura temples. The first piece of clear evidence is a general order by Aurangzeb for the destruction of temples in the provinces of Tatta, Multan & Varanasi. These provinces were chosen in particular because they were the centers of learning, where “Brahman misbelievers” used to teach their “false books” thereby attracting too many admirers & students. 

“The Lord Cherisher of the Faith learn that in the provinces of Tatta, Multan, and especially at Benares, the Brahman misbelievers used to teach their false books in their established schools, and that admirers and students, both Hindu and Muslim, used to come from great distances to these misguided men in order to acquire this vile learning. His Majesty, eager to establish Islam, issued orders to the governors of all the provinces to demolish the schools and temples of the infidels and with the utmost urgency put down the teaching and the public practice of the religion and these misbelievers

Aurangzeb’s General Order for Destruction of Temples. (9th April 1669)

Aurangzeb being the devout Muslim he was, was eager to establish Islam in these places instead. On 9th April 1669, Aurangzeb in Islamic zeal, ordered governors to demolish schools & temples of the infidels in these areas. The second piece of evidence (p. 55) refers specifically and clearly to the fact that the Kashi Vishwanath temple was completely demolished at Kashi in September, 1669 A.D.

“It was reported that, according to the Emperor’s command, his officers had demolished the temple of Vishwanath at Kashi. On Saturday, the 18th September/2nd Jamad,. A., Ekkataz Khan and Giridhardas Sidodia had a fight in the course of their watch before the Lahore Gate. The Hindus went to hell; the Khan received five wounds..”

Firman for Demolition of the temple of Viswanath (Banaras). August 1669 A.D.

So far we have established that Aurangzeb specifically commanded and ensured that the Kashi Vishwanath temple in Varanasi was destroyed. Moreover, we have corroborative evidence that it was a common practice of Aurangzeb to not only raze Hindu temples to the ground, but also to build mosques in their place on top of the sites of the destroyed structures – for the specific purpose of reminding Kafir disbelievers that Islam reigned supreme over them.

The records of his habit of building mosques at the site of destroyed temples and his motivations for doing so are documented by the account of his destruction of the Keshavanth Mandir in Mathura,  which was one of the most magnificent temples in India. In its place, he deliberately spent a huge amount to build a “lofty mosque” and ensured the Hindu deities were broken, desecrated and purposely denigrated. Accomplishing this “seemingly impossible work showed the undefeatable “strength of the Emperor’s faith”.

“On Thursday, 27th January/15th Ramzan (1080 A.H./January-February 1670)… During this month of Ramzan abounding in miracles, the Emperor as the promoter of justice and overthrower of mischief, as a knower of truth and destroyer of oppression, as the zephyr of the garden of victory and the reviver of the faith of the Prophet, issued orders for the demolition of the temple situated in Mathura, famous as the Dehra of Kesho Rai. In a short time by the great exertions of his officers, the destruction of this strong foundation of infidelity was accomplished, and on its site, a lofty mosque was built at the expenditure of a large sum. This temple of folly was built by that gross idiot Birsingh Rao Bundela…”

Order for Demolition of Keshava Rai temple, Mathura. (13th January, 1670)

But Aurangzeb was not satisfied with just the destruction and desecration of Hindu deities and temples, he wanted to ensure that the memory of helplessness and insult would be seared into Hindu minds for posterity. He ensured this by transporting the broken parts of the Murtis and burying them under the steps of the mosque of Begam Sahib in Agra. This way Muslims would keep stepping on them as a symbol of Islam’s victory over Hinduism and perpetual humiliation of Hindu Kafirs.

“Praised be the august God of the faith of Islam, that in the auspicious reign of this destroyer of infidelity and turbulence, such a wonderful and seemingly impossible work was successfully accomplished. On seeing this instance of the strength of the Emperor’s faith and the grandeur of his devotion to God, the proud Rajas were stifled, and in amazement they stood like images facing the wall. The idols, large and small, set with costly jewels, which had been set up in the temple, were brought to Agra, and buried under the steps of the mosque of the Begam Sahib, in order to be continually trodden upon. The name of Mathura was changed to Islamabad.

Such then were the lofty motivations and actions of Aurangzeb, the great Reviver of Islam. We need not search for much more proof of the horror behind the Gyanvyapi Mosque than what has been given directly by the horse’s mouth. The proud description of the systematic and deliberate destruction of the Kashi Vishwanath temple is just one among the stories of the desecration of Hinduism’s holiest shrines. The episodes have been meticulously recorded by the Islamic court Chroniclers of the Mughal kings themselves. They serve as irrefutable evidence of the terrible atrocities committed against Hindu culture by Mughal emperors like Aurangzeb, for the sole sake of establishing the supremacy of Islam and demeaning the faith of Hindus.

To learn more, please visit the Chhatrapati Shivaji Museum of Indian History’s outstanding exhibition on original Persian Firmans by Aurangzeb, the Source of images & Firmans in this article.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Museum of Indian History: https://bit.ly/3dMX99t

Translation of Maasir-E-Alamgiri at: https://bit.ly/39Vt9az

Bio:-

Savitri Mumukshu is a software entrepreneur and designer from the San Francisco Bay Area, California. She holds a Masters in Information and Business Strategy from Harvard University. Her research interests include the authentic history of India, Hindu art and architecture, religious traditions, Ayurveda, and women’s roles in ancient Hindu society.

She tweets regularly on topics of interest on Twitter as @MumukshuSavitri

Development Of Medical Science In Ancient India

Development Of Medical Science In Ancient India - Sumit Banik

 An exalted standard  of medical knowledge was prevalent in ancient india.The present day archaeological  evidences of Mohenjodaro and Harappa presents the high civilization in matters of sanitation and hygiene. An analysis of the material in the Vedas reveals that all the four Vedas are full of references regarding various aspects of medicine. The Atharva veda is deemed to be an Encyclopaedia for medicinal knowledge and the  Ayurveda (the science of life) is considered as Upa Veda ( Supplementary subject) of the Atharva Veda. Medical science was surprising advanced in ancient India. Specifically these advances were seen in the areas of medicine , plastic surgery , extraction of cataracts , dental  surgery etc. These are not just tall claims. There is documentary evidence to prove the existence of these practices.

  Though the dawn of historical period in india is counted from the 7th century B.C. But historical facts are found to be definite only after the 5th century B.C. The history of science and technology in India as per the presaent day Archaeological evidences, begins with the Indus Valley Civilization. This period is usually called the pre-vedic period.The excavations at Harappa and Mohenjodaro bear Ample evidences to the proficiency reached by the people of the Indus valley civilization in matters of sanitation and hygiene. Excavations of the harappan sites have brought to light several  therapeutic  substances like Shilajit , remedies for Diabetes and Rheumatism etc. It was announced in Journal  Nature in April 2006 that the oldest evidence in human history for the Drilling Of Tooth  in vivo , that is , in a living person , was found in Mehrgarh around 7000 B.C. This drilling of tooth involved curing tooth-related disorders with drills operated by skilled bead craftsmen. This is the glaring example of proto-dentistry. They were also conversant with the medical  sciences and used various herbs and drugs to treat diseases. The people of Indus Valley Civilization practiced Trephination which is kind of medical intervention making a burr hole in the skull to treat migraines and mental disorders. The evidences of Trephination have been found at Lothal, Kalibangan and Burzahom.

The earliest sources of our knowledge of Indian Philosophy and Medicine are the four Vedas, the sacred books of knowledge belonging to the period of 1500 to 800 B.C. Ayurveda is considered to be the upa-veda or supplementary subject of Atharva Veda. An analysis of the material in the Vedas reveals that all the four Vedas are replete with references to various aspects of medicine.The medical  lore contained in the Atharva Veda is not inconsiderable.There they appear among 731 hymns , charms and incantations. At the time of Atharva Veda there were physicians and an elaborate Pharmacopoeia for treating the diseases.The praise of the Atharwan as the physician par excellence , superior to all medicines prescribed by other physicians , implies the existence of Two systems of medicine side by side. 

(1 )The system of charms prescribed by the Atharwan ( priest physician) ,

 (2) The system of drugs prescribed by ordinary medical practitioners.

The Panchagavyas ( five products of the cow ) , honey and fats are described as a suitable vehicle (anupana) for the remedies. In X : 2 : 1-33, a hymn entitled “ The wonderful structures of man ” , in which the several parts of the skeleton are carefully enumerated. In  II.33  allmost all the important organs of the body are enumerated.In X : 8 : 43 , a reference is made to lotus with nine gates.  IN  I : 17 : 3 , the comparison of the heart to a lotus is described as :

              “ Thou  sira of the lower part remains ,

                Thou  of the upper part remains ;

                So thou  of the middle part ,

               So thou  small , so thou  big dhamani . “

 With regards to this verse , S.N.Dasgupta  says  “ a knowledge of the  distinction between Veins and Arteries , in the modern sense of terms , was known at that time “. The division of Dhamanis , Siras and Snayus  seems to have been based on their relative fineness , the thicker canals were called Dhamanis , the finer ones were called Siras , and the still finer ones Snayus.  The flow of certain fluids in the body  , described in X : 2 : 11 ,

         “ who stored in him floods moving in all diverse directions  and formed to flow in rivers pink , rosy          red , and coppery dark running in all ways in a man , upward and downward ………..” .            

 The intimate relation between the heart and the brain seems to have  been dimly apprehended. 

 

               Atharva veda I :12 :3  mentions five classes of diseases.

  1. Atharvanic people recognized a threefold classification of all diseases those produced by wind , water and fire , later developments in Ayurveda , considered the threefold classification of all diseases as to the three Doshas Viz. vata , pitta and kapha.                              
  2. Diseases produced by possession by demons and evil spirits.
  3. Diseases due to worms.
  4. Diseases  due to Sorcery ( the use of magic powers derived from evil spirits).
  5. Kshetraja ( hereditary ) diseases.

 

Krimi ( organism ) were explained in detail in the Vedas. In Atharva veda  II :31 : 2 , the organisms were classified inti Drishya (macro) and Adrishya (micro) , which were in water , earth , sky , houses.  Mainly  Atharva veda I:28:4 to XIX:66:1 , about  98 Varities of krimis and krimi janya vyadhis ( diseases produced by bacteria , worms , insects ) and treatment for different bacteria manifested  diseases were explained.

Atharva veda XIII:1:32 hymn reveals that “ the rising sun is prayed  to destroy the infective organisms .” This connotes the ultra violet rays present in the sunlight was known to the Atharvanic people. Here it is stated that pathogenic bacteria live mostly during darkness and die during sunrise. Atharva veda  stated herbal remedies like Ajashringi (IV:32:2) Prishni parni (II:25:2) Apamarga (IV:18:8) etc. as anti-bacterial and Shankha (IV:10:3), Pratisar(VIII:5:8) etc. Manidharana as preventive (protection from bacteria).There is abundant literature available for the eatiology , diagnosis , diferential diagnosis , complications, management of Takma (fever). Atharva veda speaks clearly about the different types of kasa (pulmonary) diseases(I:12:3 , V:22:10) and also explained its management ( VI:105: 1-3).

Atharva veda vividly explained the Rajayakshma in the name of jayanya ( VII:76:5) , Pampa ( v:22:12) and discusses very elaborately about two main causative factors , varities and complications.

Causes :

  • The disease is communicable from diseased persons to others through roga jeevanu ( tuberculus bacillus )
  • Loss of semen , due to excessive sexual intercourse.

  Varities :

  • Akshath –  without any ulceration in phupphusa (lungs)
  • Sukshath – ulceration in phupphusa (lungs)

 Complications :

  It effects the Asthi (bones), amsa (shoulder blade) ,mamsa (muscle) , virya (semen) and leads to   the body emaciation.

  A bovine type of tuberculosis is recognized and to eradicate it , mamsa-ghrita doopanam of cowsheds is suggested. This disease is communicable from husband to wife is evident from the fact that the males are predominantly effected (98%) because of vyavayam (sexual intercourse) where in millions and trillions of spermatozoa represents nascent amino acids which otherwise would have been usefull  to body for protection are lost resulting the disease due to debilitating immunity.

      Atharva veda , iv:9:3 , speaks Kamala (jaundice) as 

  • Harima  –  due to yellowish discolouration of skin.
  • Haritha – due to loss of blood which leads to aneamia.

The following hymns reveals the three types of treatment of kamala : 

  1. Both shall go up towards  the sun , thy heart-burn and thy yellowness (I:22:1).
  2. With the colour of red bull , with that we enclose thee, for full length of life, that this man be free from defeats, and become not yellow (I:22:3).
  3. Those whose divinity is the redone , the cows that are red form after form (i.e. limb after limb) , vigor after vigor , with them we enclose thee (I:22:3).

 

These hymns reveals  :  

  1. Surya chikitsa ( treatment with the sun rays);

Transferring the diseases to the sun. if the patient exposes to the sun rays , the yellowish skin colour may change due to the ultra violet rays (vit.d) of the sun.

  1. Treatment with red colours cow’s milk ;

It removes the yellowness and develops the haemoglobin.

  1. Oushadha chikitsa (IV:9:3)
  2. Anjana mani
  3. Jangidi mani

these manis eliminate the yellowness ofd the body.

Kushtha (leprosy and allied skin disorders) is explained in Atharva veda (I:23,24) as kilasa and palitha.kilasa is the name of white leprosy. It resulted in the appearance of grey (palitha) and white  (shvetha) spots all over the body.the aetiology of kushtha is stated in I:23:4. It effects the asthi(bone tissue) , mamsa(muscle tissue), meda(adipose tissue) etc. Asikni  , Nakthajata , shyama , brahma are the herbs mentioned for its treatment (I:23:1).

Mutra krichra is mentioned in II:3 very elaborately. The most delicate operation described is the probing of the urethra which was prescribed to relieve of patient suffering from the retension of urine. Atharva veda II,III ;speaks the kshetriya ( hereditary) diseases  (the diseases able to passed down from one generation to another through the parents) and also their treatment.

Jivaka was the personal physician of the Haryanka king Bimbisara. He lived in Rajagriha , Present day Rajgir , in 5th century BCE.  Sometimes described as the “Medicine King” , he figures prominently in legendary accounts in Asia as a model  healer. When king bimbisara suffered from an anal fistula , he called upon the help of jivaka. After curing the king of his fistula , jivaka was appointed by the king as his personal physician and as a personal physician to the Buddha. Jivaka was depicted healing a misplacement of intestines , performing an operation of trepanning on a patient , removing an intracranial mass and performing  nose surgery. In the Dharmaguptaka  Vinaya , he healed a disease of the head by treating the patient  with ghee  through the nose. In the pali texts he is depicted as performing laparotomy , removing post-traumatic volvulus and a cesarean section on patients under some form of anaesthesia.  Jivaka treated another setthi , this time with a brain condition. After having performed brain surgery , he told the patient to lie still on the right side for seven years and on the left side for another seven years. In another case described in the Mulasarvastibada texts, king  Bimbisara  lent  jivaka  to king Pradyota  , the king of Ujjayini ,to heal his jaundice.

 Although there may have been several different systems of medicine in ancient India , the texts and traditions of only one of these – Ayurveda ( literally , knowledge for longevity) –have come down to us.the Charaka Samhita  and Sushruta Samhita are its earliest surviving texts. There is little evidence to prove the claim made by the Ayurveda tradition that its root lie in the veda. Although vedic texts do contain ideas related to healing and medicine , these do not match those of Ayurveda. Neither is there any indication that Ayurveda owed anything to Greek medicine , not a single Greek loan word can be identified in its terminology. Debiprasad  chattopadhyaya argues that the medical literature represents part of a “Secular” , i.e; non-religious empirical tradition that, at some point of time , came to be brahmanized. On the other hand , Kenneth G. Zysk (1991) holds that the roots of Ayurveda lie in the milieu of the Buddhist monasteries of early historical India , and that medical knowledge and the practice of monks gradually spread beyond the confines of the monasteries. It is interesting to note the interweaving of philosophical ideas , for instance, those of  Samkhya, Yoga ,and  Vaisheshika , in the medical texts.

 The Charaka Samhita contains several chronological layers. The origins of the work may go back to the 3rd or 2nd century BCE. The Bower Manuscript contains passages very similar to those in the Charaka Samhita and indicates that Charaka was considered a medical authority by the early 5th century CE. The name charaka occurs in colophons at the end of each chapter of the book. The main body of the text presents itself as containing knowledge received by Agnivesha from his teacher , a sage named Atreya. It seems that the medical system described in the work was known as the system of Agnivesha   and that Charaka simply edited Agniveshas text. In the 4th or 5th century CE , the text seems to have been edited again by a person named Dridhabala. 

The Charaka Samhita is divided into 120 chapters arranged in 8 sections. The Sutra section deals with pharmacology , food, certain diseases and their treatment ,doctors and quacks, and various philosophical issues. The second ( Nidana) section deals with the causes of eight important diseases. The third ( Vimana)  section deals with the issues such as taste, nutrition , pathology and medical studies. The fourth ( Sharira) deals with anatomy , embryology ,and philosophy. Then there are sections dealing with diagnosis and prognosis ( Indiriya) , therapy (chikitsa) , pharmacy ( kalpa) , and a further discussion of therapy in general (siddhi).

The Shusrata Samhita too has several chronological layers.the original text which basically dealt with surgery, may have been composed in the late centuries BCE. , But it was added to and edited over several centuries till about the 5th century CE. Commentaries on the work mention the name of an editor named  Nagarjuna. The text as it has come down to us consists of six sections. The first (Sutra) section deals with issues such as the origin and parts of medicine , a doctors training, therapeutic substances , food , surgery , the treatment of wounds , and the extraction of splinters. The second (Nidana) section deals with symptoms of diseases , their pathology, prognosis , and surgery. The third ( Sharira )   deals with embryology , anatomy , and philosophy. Chikitsa deals with therapy , Kalpa with poisons. The Uttara section deals with eyes,teeth,childrens care, and diseases attributed to demons, etc.

The concepts of dosha ( humours) , dhatu (body tissues) ,and mala (waste products) are central to Ayurveda.  Three semi-liquid substances or doshas – vata (wind) , pitta ( bile, choler) , and kapha/shleshman ( phlegm) – are supposed to circulate in the body. The vata is supposed to be localized mostly in the large intestine, the pitta in the navel, and the kapha in the chest. The three doshas interact with the seven basic elements of the body – chyle(the pulp to which food is reduced in the stomach) , blood, flesh fat , bone , marrow, and semen and with waste products produced by the body. Body fluids are are visualized as carried around the body through innumerable ducts, pipes,and tubes. Sushurata uses interesting similes to explain the function of the network of ducts – he describes it as similar to veins on a leaf , providing nutrition to all parts of the body through contraction and dilation, just as a garden or field is irrigated by water carrying canals. Digestion is seen as the central process of bodily function

Diseases are believed to be caused either by an inordinate build-up of one of the doshas in its location or by its movement into another area of the body. They are divided into those that can be cured , those that can only be alleviated , and those for which there is no cure.  They are linked to other factors includinf lapse of judgement , the suppression of natural urges , karma, and the influence of dempns. The discussion of epidemics mentions their connection with bad water, rats and mosquitoes. Methods of medical diagnosis include direct perception and inference. Sushruta states that touching , looking and questioning are the three methods that a doctor should use while examining a patient , but adds that he should use all og his five senses. Ayurveda prescribes various kinds of therapies including dietary regulation , massage, enemas , ointments, bloodletting, and surgery. It emphasizes moderation , including in eating , exercise and medication.

The Sushrata Samhita describes surgery as the most useful branch of medical knowledge and gives information on surgical techniques and practices in ancient india. The author discusses the training of a surgeon and gives a detailed description of his tools. There are descriptions of surgical procedures such as the dislodging of the eye lens for the removal of cataract , cutting for a stone in the bladder, removing splinters and arrows, and suturing. The text also refers briefly to plastic surgery – a flap from the skin being grafted to repair a severed nose (rhinoplasty) and the repair of torn earlobes. It also discusses how corpses can be used to study human anatomy.

Other important ancient Ayurveda texts  include Vagbhata’s Ashtangahridaya ( Heart of medicine) , a comprehensive and systematic presentation of Ayurvedic medical knowledge , which may belong to c. 600 CE.  Another  important work called the Ashtangasamgraha ( Tome on medicine) is ascribed to the same author. Other ancient Ayurvedic treatises include Kashyapa’s compendium , which mainly deals with the diseases of women and children. It may belong to the 7th century , although some parts may be based on older material. The 14th century Sharngadhara Samhita offers a brief but succinct account of Ayurveda. Its  recipes are still used by the ayurvedic pharmaceutical industry. Mention may also be made of developments in veterinary science. The Hastyayurveda of Palakapya is a work consisting of 160 chapters. It deals with the diagnosis and treatment of the major diseases of  elephants through medication and surgery.

The ideas of Ayurveda  had an impact outside the subcontinent as well. The major texts became accessible to other regions and cultures via translations into languiages such as Arabic , Persian  and Tibetan. There is  evidence that Ayurvedic ideas influenced Botanical science in Europe as well. Ayurveda is an ancient system of Indian medicine which has continued into our own times as one of several traditional alternatives to the Allopathic tradition of modern medicine.

REFERENCES:

   1. Hoernle, A.F.R. 1907 . Medicine Of Ancient India . The Clarendon Press. Oxford.

   2. Kutumbaiah , P . 1962 . Ancient Indian Medicine .   Orient Longmans , Madras.

   3. Shastri , Srikanta . Atharvaveda Samhita , Sanatan Bhasya , Madhawa Pustakalaya , kamla nagar , Delhi-7.            

   4. Wheeler , M . 1953 . The Indus Civilization , Cambridge University Press.

   5. Whitney , William Dwight .2011.Atharva Veda Samhita . Motilal Banarasidass Publishers.        

   6. Singh , Upinder .  2009. A History Of Ancient And Early Medieval India.  DELHI.

 

Author :

SUMIT  BANIK

  FORMER  STUDENT

 DEPARTMENT  OF  HISTORY

 UNIVERSITY  OF  NORTH  BENGAL