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Rise of Imperial Pratiharas: An assessment of the reigns of Nagabhata-I and Vatsaraja

Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Imperial Pratiharas and meaning of the term “Gurjara”
  3. An overview of literary evidences and inscriptions providing information about the reigns of Nagabhata-I and Vatsaraja
  4. Military achievements of Nagabhata-I and Vatsaraja
  5. Conclusory remarks
  6. Notes and References

1. Introduction

The assessment of the rise of Imperial Pratiharas is of considerable importance because of the Arab invasion impact on the polity of this period and the rise of various clans of Rajputs like that of Pratiharas, Guhilas, Chauhans, Tomars etc. Warriors of these great clans fought with Arabs and ensured that Bharatvarsha embarked upon a rich cultural journey from 7th-8th century onwards with Imperial Pratiharas becoming the masters of much of Northern India. Chronologically, one of the earliest and most outstanding of the Rajput lineages, the Pratiharas held a special place in bardic tradition and chronicles of Rajasthan.1

2. Imperial Pratiharas and meaning of the term “Gurjara”

2.1 Nagabhata-I (the 1st ruler of the lineage Imperial Pratiharas mentioned in Gwalior Prashasti) was perhaps a feudatory of the Chapas of Bhillamala. Traditional accounts make him a soldier of fortune, who established his capital at Jalore. He gained prominence after the downfall of the Chapa (Chavda) kingdom in the course of resisting the invading forces led by the Arabs who controlled Sindh. The Gwalior Prashasti ascribes Nagabhata-I as having appeared like Lord Narayan (Vishnu) “in response to the prayers of the oppressed people to crush the large armies of the powerful Mlechchha ruler, the destroyer of virtue”.2 One inscription (Hansot plate, 756 CE) have been found during the reign of Nagabhata-I issued by his subordinate chief Bhartrivaddha-II. 

Vatsaraja (the 4th ruler in the lineage of Imperial Pratiharas) led an ambitious campaign in the east conquering the territories of Kannauj and Gauda. His victory over Bengal is recognised even by the Rashtrakutas.3 The earliest primary source of his reign is Kuvalayamala of Uddyotana (778 CE).

2.2 The word “Gurjara” denoted a geographical connotation as testified by various inscriptions and literary evidences right from the very early days of its usage, i.e., 7th century CE onwards.

KM Munshi noted that modern Gujarat has a part of Medieval Gurjaradesha included in it. Gurjara-bhumi of the Chaulukyas/Solankis (c. 940-1304 CE), differed from the Gurjaradesha, or Gurjaratra of the Imperial Pratiharas (c. 725-940 CE) as also the Gurjara visited by Hiuen-Tsang (641 CE). Only one tract was common to all these entities, before the fall of Anahilavada in 1299 CE, was the ancient city of Bhillamala, which certainly never lay outside their boundaries. Bhillamala, therefore, is the centre from which the shifting boundaries of the Gurjara region in a particular period have to be determined.4

Before the rise of Imperial Pratiharas, Hiuen-Tsang (in about 641 CE) visited Gurjara territory. Its southern boundary touched the river Sarasvati in modern Gujarat; its northern limit was beyond modern Jodhpur.5 This account of the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang (Xuan Zang), which mentions among the twenty-three countries described in Book XI, the country of Kiu-che-lo, taken to be a transliteration of Gurjara, the capital of which was Pi-lo-mo-lo, identified as Bhillamala. The ruler is described as a Kshatriya, distinguished for wisdom and courage. The detailed particulars provided by the traveller not only attest to the existence of a territory known as Gurjara but testifies to the presence of a Kshatriya ruler in a Gurjara territory.6 Infact, the Gurjara territory (Bhillamalla) during this period was most probably ruled by the Kshatriya clan of Chavdas. Magha’s Shishupalavadha and Vasantgarh Inscription (625 CE) prove that Bhillamalla and Abu, in first quarter of 7th century, were ruled by Chavda ruler, Varmalata.7

In the expression “Lāṭa-Mālava-Gūrjarah” of the Meguti temple Aihole inscription, dated Śaka 556 (634-635 CE), the rulers submitting to Pulakesin II are mentioned by the territories they ruled over.8

The Arab writers Sulaiman, Abu Zaid, Ibn Khurdadba, Al Biladuri, Al Masudi, and Al Idrisi mention “Jurz” or “Juzr” (arabic corruption of Gurjara). Sulaiman and Abu Zaid report that Jurz is a State.9 Al Biladuri’s account of the Arab governor Junaid’s conquest of Bailaiman and Jurz (c. 725 CE), of which the latter has been identified with Gurjara confirms the existence of a region well-known as Gurjara. The Arab traveler Sulaiman, 851 CE, noted that the king of Jurz was unfriendly to the Arabs and the greatest foe of the Mohammedan faith among the princes of India.10

Above pieces of evidences are sufficient to conclude that Gurjara, as a territory, existed before the rise of Imperial Pratiharas of Jalore and Kannauj.

2.3 Rashtrakuta inscriptions do not make a direct identification of any of the Imperial Pratihara rulers as Gurjara, but they do contain the terms gurjareshvara, gurjaresha and gurjaranatha which have been accepted as references to the Imperial Pratihāra rulers.11

These references of gurjaresha and gurjaranatha, undoubtedly, have geographical connotations. This is strengthened by the fact that such titles were transferable to even non-Pratihara clans like Chaulukyas, Chavdas, ruler of Southern Ganga Dynasty and Marathas. Some of the evidences regarding this, will be discussed here:

2.3.1 Skanda Purāṇa (Sahyadri Khanda)12

Here is a verse from Skanda Purāṇa which mentions Pancha-Dravida Brahmins divided into 5 sections. One of the divisions is called Gurjara Brahmin.

द्राविडाश्चैव तैलङ्गाः कर्नाटा मध्यदेशगाः। गुर्जराः चैव पञ्चैते कथ्यन्ते पञ्चद्राविडाः॥

Pancha-Dravida Brahmins divided into five sections:

  • Tailaṅgas
  • Karnāṭas
  • Drāviḍas
  • Madhyadeśagas
  • Gurjaras

Undoubtedly, Gurjaras and other four divisions denote geographical connotation and there is no Gujjar caste affiliation.

2.3.2 Tasgaon Plates of Yadava Krishna (1251 CE)13

Tasgaon plates of Yadava Krishna mentions a Gurjara Brahmin named Shatananda of Krishna-atreya Kula. Again the term “Gurjara” doesn’t signify any caste here, but is a geographical connotation for a Brahmin living in Gurjaradesha.

2.3.3 Shravana Belagola epigraph (10th century CE)14

Shravana Belagola epigraph states that Ganga Dynasty’s Satyavakya Kongunivarman became known as “Gurjara adhiraja” by conquering the northern region for Rashtrakuta King Krishna III. Till now, not even a single Historian opined that the word “Gurjara” in this epigraph (used for Ganga Dynasty) has any racial connection with Gujjar caste.

2.3.4  Jaina Pustak Prashasti Sangraha

Palm leaf manuscript in Pattan, Jaina Pustak Prashasti Sangraha mentions “अथ अस्ति गुर्जरो देशो विख्यातो भुवनत्रये” i.e. there is a desha called Gurjara famous in three worlds.15

2.3.5 Prabhavaka Charita (13th century CE)

Prabhavaka Charita (13th century CE) is a Jaina text which clearly says that the word “Gurjara” represents a region “अस्ति स्वस्तिनिधिः श्रीमान् देशो गुर्जरसंज्ञया” i.e. the country (देशः) by the name Gurjara (गुर्जर), which is the abode (निधिः) of wealth and auspiciousness.16

2.3.6 Dohad Stone Inscription of Mahmud Begada (1488 CE)17 and Raj Vinod Mahakavya18

In the very 1st verse of Dohad Stone Inscription, Mudaphar Patasaha i.e. Muzaffar-I is referred to as Shri Gurjaresha (“श्रीगूर्जरेशो नृपकुलतिलकः”). Similarly, Raj Vinod Mahakavya, written by court poet of Mahmud Begada, used the title of Shri Gurjjara-Kshamapati for Mudaphar i.e. Muzaffar-I (श्रीमान् साहिमुदप्फरस्समजनि श्रीगूर्ज्जरक्ष्मापति).

To sum up, Gurjara was for centuries the name of the territory which included Bhillamala and Jalore; and as this was the original home of the Pratiharas, they continued, like the Karnatas of Mithila, to be known by the name of their home-land as Gurjaras, or people from the Gurjara land and its rulers, even when the centre of their power had shifted to Kannauj. Had Gurjara been their tribal designation, it would have stuck to them, even after the lapse of centuries and the loss of their original territories. But it did not, as it was no true differentia of theirs. It was only their connection with Gurjara which made the appellation, Gurjara, appropriate for them; the moment the connection ended, the appellation was passed on to the Chaulukyas, the new masters of the Gurjara territory and was retained by these latter people too.19

3. An overview of literary evidences and inscriptions providing information about the reigns of Nagabhata-I and Vatsaraja

3.1 This section will shed light on the inscriptions of Imperial Pratiharas pertaining to the reign of Nagabhata-I and Vatsaraja. No inscriptions have been found (till date) which were personally issued by the early rulers of Imperial Pratiharas namely Nagabhata-I, Kakkuka, Devaraja. 

Hence, the aim will be to extract the information from the inscriptions issued by their samants (feudatories) during their reigns or the inscriptions issued by the later kings of Imperial Pratiharas lineage.

Hansot plates (756 CE)20 were issued by Bhartrivaddha-II, a Chauhan feudatory of King Nagavaloka, identified as Nagabhata-I of Imperial Pratiharas. These plates give us the definite year of 756 CE of Nagabhata-I reign. Moreover, the plates were issued from the region of Bhrigukachchha (modern Broach), highlighting the sovereignty of Imperial Pratiharas over the Lata region in 756 CE.

Gwalior Prashasti of Bhoja21 gives us the information that Imperial Pratiharas emerged from the younger brother of Shri Rama, i.e., Lakshamana, who served as the Pratihara of Shri Rama. Thus, Imperial Pratiharas belonged to the lineage of Ikshvaku (Suryavansha). The kshatriya descent of Imperial Pratiharas is corroborated by other evidences. Rajasekhara, the court poet of the Imperial Pratihara rulers Mahendrapala-I and Mahipala, confirms their testimony by calling the former Raghugramani and the latter Raghuvansha-muktamani. The Harsha inscription of the Chauhan ruler, Vigrahraja-II, mentions a Raghukula-bhuchakravarti, who obviously is some Pratihara ruler of Kannauj.22 In Gwalior Prashasti, Vatsarāja (4th in the lineage of Imperial Pratihāras) is called as the “foremost among the most distinguished Kshatriyas” (एकः क्षत्रियपुंगवेषु) & he elevated the Ikshvaku kula (इक्ष्वाकोः कुलमुन्नतम्) with his own name by virtue of his faultless conduct. Thus, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that Imperial Pratiharas of Kannauj were Suryavanshi Kshatriyas.

About Nagabhata-I, the Gwalior Prashasti mentions that he crushed the large armies of the powerful mlechchha king. Mlechchhas referred here are, undoubtedly, the Arabs. Arab attack on western borders of North India is also corroborated by the account of Al Biladuri.

IMAGE-1: Genealogy of early rulers of Imperial Pratiharas23

The next three rulers in Gwalior Prashasti after Nagabhata-I, are Kakkuka (Kakustha), Devashakti (Devaraja) and Vatsaraja. Kakkuka and Devaraja were the sons of the brother of Nagabhata-I. Vatsaraja was the son of Devraja (refer IMAGE-1 above).

Gallaka Inscription (795 CE)24 is another important inscription issued by the Imperial Pratihara ruler, Vatsaraja. Interestingly, the names of Kakkuka and Devaraja are omitted in the genealogy provided in the inscription. This was perhaps due to very short reign or no military achievements attained by Kakkuka and Devaraja. Further, from verse 8 onwards, the description of events runs around the personality of Vatsaraja’s son-like feudatory Shrivarmaka, of the family of the king Kāchara. This is the lone epigraphical reference to this feudatory family till date. In this inscription, Shrivarmaka is stated to have defeated and imprisoned the Tajika ruler. The Tajika ruler may be identified with Vatsaraja’s Mlechchha or Turushka enemy of the Sindh-Multan region.25

3.2 Having discussed some important inscriptions of Imperial Pratiharas, we shall now proceed to some literary evidences pertaining to the reign of Nagabhata-I and Vatsaraja.

The Prakrit text Samaraichchakaha was written in the eighth century (early Pratihara period) by Jain acharya Haribhadra Suri. It is endowed with literary qualities as well as great cultural qualities. Through this, one can get a glimpse of the society, religion, geography, economic and political life of the time by providing important cultural elements of the eighth century and earlier. In this, there is a lively depiction of people from different sections of the society like king, priest, sage, sadhvi, prince, samant, minister etc. The life-view from the common people to the highly privileged royal class is obtained from this text.26 Haribhadra was a Brahmin well-versed in Hindu texts. He belonged to Chittor (Rajasthan) where he seems to have stayed upto his initiation. He was converted to Jainism by the preachings of a nun named Yakini. As a homage to her, Haribhadra always styles himself in his works as the son of Yakini. Haribhadra was also well-versed in Buddhism. His literary activity as a theologian was tremendous. The tradition as early as that of 1068 CE mentioned by Abhayadeva, describes Haribhadra as the author of 1400 works.27

Another Prakrit text named Kuvalayamala was composed by Jain acharya Uddyotana Suri while he was residing in Jalore in 778 CE. It was composed in the time of Imperial Pratihara ruler Ranahastin (रणहस्तिन्) Vatsaraja.28 Nagabhata-I extended his patronage to a Jaina scholar named Yakshadeva, which is identified with Kshamashramana Yakshadatta of the Kuvalayamala whose pupils are said to have beautified Gurjaradesa (the janapada of which Bhillamala was the chief town) with many temples.29

Next important text composed in the reign of Vatsaraja was the Harivamsa Purana of Jinasena (783 CE). This text mentions Vatsaraja as the lord of western quarter, i.e., Rajasthan.30 Apart from above mentioned texts, there are various other literary compositions which shed light on the reigns of the early period of Imperial Pratiharas. e.g. (a) compositions of Kaviraja Rajashekhara, who was the guru of Imperial Pratihara King Mahendrapala-I; (b) various traditions recorded in Puratana prabandha sangraha (tradition recorded in Puratana prabandha sangraha shows that Nagabhata-I established his capital at Jalore)31 etc.

4. Military achievements of Nagabhata-I and Vatsaraja

4.1 Military career of Nagabhata-I: Arab expeditions undertaken by Junaid, the general of Khalif Hasham (724-43 CE) took place in Rajasthan. According to the Futuhu-l Buldan of Al Biladuri (892-3 CE), Junaid sent expeditions to Marmad, Mandal, Dalmaj, Barus, Uzain, Maliba, Baharimad and conquered Al Bailaiman and Jurz. Jurz is recognized as the Arabic corruption of Gurjara territory. Bailaiman is taken to be i.e. modern Jaisalmer state along with some adjoining areas. Barus is identified as Broach.32 This was the critical juncture which set the stage for the rise of Imperial Pratiharas.

Nagabhata-I rise of power from feudatory to an independent sovereign of Jalore is linked with his continuous victories over Mleccha kings (Arabs). This is evident from Gwalior Prashasti in which he is said to have appeared like Narayana, having crushed Mleccha armies. Hansot plates (756 CE) speaks of the conquest by his Chauhan subordinate, Bhartrivaddha-II, over the Broach area. From Arab accounts, we know that Barus (Broach) was attacked by Arabs just prior to this period (756 CE). Thus, Arabs were forced to retire from this area and it passed into the hands of Bhartrivaddha-II, a fact which would indicate that the Pratihara armies freed not only Rajasthan but also the area adjoining it.33 Gallaka Inscription (795 CE) confirms both these facts and introduces the king Nagabhata-I as one who had scored victory over the invincible Gurjaras (victory over Broach) and who, like Vishnu-Purushottama, in his Varaha incarnation, had retrieved the earth from calamity by vanquishing his foes (victory over Arabs).34

At their greatest extent, Nagabhata-I’s dominions included Bhillamala, Lata, Jalore, Abu and probably some other chunks of territory in Rajasthan and Central India.35

Gallaka Inscription further strengthens the claim that Imperial Pratiharas never assumed “Gurjara” as a title for themselves. It was always their rivals like Rashtrakutas and Palas, who had used titles of Gurjaresha, etc, for Imperial Pratiharas. Moreover, in the Gallaka inscription, Imperial Pratiharas are said to have defeated the Gurjara dynasty of Broach. 

Dadda was the founder of the Gurjara dynasty of Broach (580 CE). This date corresponds so exactly with that of Dadda, the youngest son of Harichandra (of Pratihara family of Mandor; different from Imperial Pratiharas), that the identification of the two has been accepted by scholars. It is possible that Rajjila (of Pratiharas of Mandore) conquered parts of Lata and appointed his younger brother Dadda as his feudatory.36 This also explains why the dynasty of Broach retained their original connection with Gurjara territory, although they claimed descent from the legendary hero Karna of Mahabharata.37

4.2 Military career of Vatsaraja: Verse 7 of Gwalior Prashasti informs that Vatsaraja forcibly wrested the empire in battle, from the Bhandi clan, hard to be overcome by reason of the rampart made of infuriated elephants.38 Victory over Bhandi clan is said to have conferred an empire (samrajya) to Vatsaraja as mentioned in this inscription. Various authors have opined about the identification of Bhandi clan.

V.B. Mishra39 opined, “We know of no other Bhandi except one who is referred to in the Harshacharita. But we do not know what happened to him and where he established his authority. Probably the Bhandi clan stands for the Bhatti clan, referred to in the Jodhpur inscription of Bauka. Vatsaraja seems to have attained supreme status in Gurjaratra or Central Rajputana, for an inscription found at Osia says that it was engraved during the reign of Vatsaraja.”

Dasharatha Sharma proposed identification (of Bhandi clan) with the Gauda ruler, since Dharmapāla was known to have been Rāja-bhaṭa ādi-vamsa-patita and therefore could be called Bhaṭādi, which could be the sanskritized form of Bhaṇḍi. By his defeat it could certainly be claimed that Vatsaraja secured samrajya, he further averred, pointing out that the Bengal army possessed many elephants.40

The Gallaka Inscription (795 CE) provides us with new information of a substantial nature on many important military exploits of Vatsaraja and his subordinates. The victories credited to Vatsaraja (and his subordinates) in the inscription are against the rulers of Karnata and Lata, against Jayapida, against the Lord of Gauda and against the Mlechchha and Kira rulers.41 

The claim of Vatsaraja to have defeated the Lord of Gauda seems to be based on facts because even the Rashtrakutas admit that Vatsaraja had defeated the Gauda king.42 Mlechchhas (defeated by Vatsaraja) were no doubt the early Arab Muslim invaders who had carved out settlements for themselves in the Sindh-Multan region. Shrivarmaka (subordinate chief of Vatsaraja in this inscription) is stated to have defeated and imprisoned the Tajika ruler of Sindh-Multan region.43 The Kiras of the north, whom also Vatsarāja claims to have defeated, may be safely identified as the rulers of Kira-grama and the region around it in the Kangra valley.44 Jayapida, who suffered defeat at the hands of Vatsaraja, may be safely identified with the Karkota family of Kashmir.45 Vatsaraja’s claim of victory over the ruler of Karnata and Lata, by whom, obviously Rashtrakuta Dhruva (780-93 CE) is meant. But there are counterclaims in later Rashtrakuta inscriptions of their victory against Vatsaraja. These claims and counterclaims of victory are, more or less, a conventional part of epigraphical poetry and may indicate either the uncertain nature of the outcome of the battles, giving scope for such contradictory claims, or may pertain to different battles in which the results were successively reversed and for which we do not have tangible evidence.46 But, in this case, the contemporary inscription of 795 CE (Gallaka Inscription) claims victory of Vatsaraja whereas no inscription during the reign of Dhruva (r. 780-793 CE) have been found which asserted his victory over Pratihara Vatsaraja. Thus, in light of new contemporary evidence of Gallaka inscription, it is clear that, till 795 CE atleast, Pratihāras did not lose their territories to Rashtrakuta Dhruva.

Next, the Gallaka Inscription also mentions the significant victory of Imperial Pratiharas over the Parvatiyas (the minor rulers of the hilly regions of the Himalayas) and Tomar chief, Vyaghra. The Tomaras were known to have been ruling in and around modern Delhi from at least the middle of the 8th century.47

From verse 13 the description shifts to Gallaka, Shrivarmaka’s son born out of his wife Devasri. Since verse 14 states that Gallaka was ruling over a kingdom which he had properly inherited, we may safely conclude that his father Shrivarmaka had predeceased his master Vatsaraja and was not alive at the time our inscription was engraved. Like his father, Gallaka also was actively associated with Vatsaraja’s campaigns against the Gauda forces (verse 17) and the Karnata ruler (indirectly alluded to in the expression Vallabh-ashru-dhāraḥ in line 19, Vallabha being a common appellation for Karnata emperors particularly during the Vatapi Chalukya and Rashtrakuta periods). Gallaka was also involved in Vatsaraja’s wars for gaining supremacy over the Kanauj region and seems to have played a crucial role in success fully enthroning Indra-bhata (same as Indraraja, the rival of Chakrayudha) at Kanyakubja. An important implication is that Indraraja was safely perched on his throne even as late as the date of the present inscription.48

Durlabharaja, Chauhan of Shakambhari, who is described in the Prthvirajavijaya as having bathed his sword at the confluence of the Ganga and ocean and enjoyed the Gauda land, was evidently another Pratihara subordinate who accompanied Vatsaraja in his campaign of Gauda.49

Epigraphic as well as literary evidences testify to the rule of Vatsaraja over Rajasthan. Firstly, the Osia inscription of 956 CE by the merchant Jindaka who renovated the Jina temple at Osia in the tenth century reveals that Osia was a flourishing town (puram garīya) in the time of Vatsaraja. The eloquent reference to Shri Vatsaraja, whose pure fame surpassed the effulgence of the moonlight, who had subdued his foes, defeated the mighty army and granted protection to the brahmins, kshatriyas, vaishyas and shudras in the epigraph is further reflective of the successful military exploits of Vatsarāja. Secondly, the Daulatpura inscription of Bhoja (843 CE) which records that the Shivagrahara of the Dendavanaka vishaya in the Gurjaratra country had been granted by means of a charter by his great-grandfather, Maharaja Shri Vatsarajadeva, is testimony to the rule of Vatsaraja over Didwana. Thirdly, the prashasti of the Kuvalayamala of Uddyotana Suri states that the work was composed while he was residing at Jalore in 778 CE, when the ruling king was Shri Ranahastin Vatsaraja, who crushed his enemies and was a joy to those who were friendly. The evidence is of great relevance as it not only provides us with a definite date for Vatsarāja but provides testimony to his rule over Jalore. Coins of the Pratihara ruler Vatsaraja, bearing the legend ‘Ranahastin’, have been found in Rajasthan, Saurashtra, Kannauj and certain localities in Uttar Pradesh. Their wide provenance and paleographic ascription to the eighth century are suggestive of an extensive empire.50

Thus, to conclude, Vatsaraja attained victories over Arabs, Kiras, Pravatiyas, Tomars, Jayapida and Gaudas. He held his supreme authority over Central Rajasthan as evident from the feudatory status of Chauhans and other families, during the reign of Imperial Pratihara ruler Vatsaraja. After having established his supremacy in the north by defeating the Gauda ruler and reinstating Indrabhaṭa in his kingdom of Kannauj, Vatsaraja (in the words of Gallaka inscription) attained the status of an emperor (sarva-bhauma-nripatitva).51

5. Conclusory remarks

Rapid Military achievements and consequent destruction of Arabs (from 740’s) by Imperial Pratiharas, was a significant moment in the history of Bhāratavarṣa. Moreover, the discussion of new evidences in this article makes it crystal clear that Imperial Pratiharas were of kshatriya origin and had no connection with Gujar caste. On the contrary, the word “Gurjara” has been continuously used as a geographical connotation from its early usage till the very recent times.

6. Notes & References:

  1. Shanta Rani Sharma, “Origin and Rise of the Imperial Pratihāras of Rajasthan: Transitions, Trajectories and Historical Change, 2017, p. 21
  2. Rima Hooja, “A History of Rajasthan”, 2006, Section-3, Chapter-5
  3. Shanta Rani Sharma, “Origin and Rise of the Imperial Pratihāras of Rajasthan: Transitions, Trajectories and Historical Change, 2017, p. 89
  4. KM Munshi, “Glory that was Gurjara Desha”, 1954, Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, p. 5
  5. ibid. p. 7
  6. Shanta Rani Sharma, “Origin and Rise of the Imperial Pratihāras of Rajasthan: Transitions, Trajectories and Historical Change”, 2017, p. 32
  7. Dasharatha Sharma, “Rajasthan through Ages”, Vol. I, 2014, p. 101
  8. Shanta Rani Sharma, “Origin and Rise of the Imperial Pratihāras of Rajasthan: Transitions, Trajectories and Historical Change”, 2017, p. 32
  9. RC Majumdar, “A Comprehensive History of India”, 1981, Part-I, p. 691
  10. Shanta Rani Sharma, “Exploding the Myth of the Gujara Identity of the Imperial Pratiharas”, 2012
  11. ibid.
  12. J.. Gerson Da Cunha, “The Sahyadri Khanda of the Skanda Purana”, 1877, p. 301
  13. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XXVII, 1947-48, p. 209
  14. Epigraphia Indica Vol. V, 1898-99, p. 176
  15. Dasharatha Sharma, “Rajasthan through Ages”, Vol. I, 2014, p. 114
  16. ibid. p. 117
  17. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XXIV, 1898-99, p. 222
  18. Gopalnarayan Bahura, “Mahakavi Udayaraj virachit Rajavinod Mahakavya”, 2011, p. 3 (first sarga)
  19. Dasharatha Sharma, “Rajasthan through Ages”, Vol. I, 2014, p. 119
  20. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XII, 1913-14, p. 197
  21. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XVIII, 1925, p. 99
  22. Dasharatha Sharma, “Rajasthan through Ages”, Vol. I, 2014, p. 481
  23. Shanta Rani Sharma, “Origin and Rise of the Imperial Pratihāras of Rajasthan: Transitions, Trajectories and Historical Change”, 2017, p. 66
  24. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XLI, 1975-76, p. 49
  25. ibid. p. 53
  26. Gokul Prasad Jain, “Samaraichchakaha of Acharya Haribhadra Suri”, p.53
  27. M.C. Modi, “Samaraicca-kaha (The sixth chapter)”, 1936, p. 5
  28. Shanta Rani Sharma, “Origin and Rise of the Imperial Pratihāras of Rajasthan: Transitions, Trajectories and Historical Change”, 2017, p. 13
  29. Dasharatha Sharma, “Rajasthan through Ages”, Vol. I, 2014, p. 121
  30. ibid. p. 125
  31. ibid. p. 128
  32. Shanta Rani Sharma, “Origin and Rise of the Imperial Pratihāras of Rajasthan: Transitions, Trajectories and Historical Change”, 2017, p. 67
  33. Dasharatha Sharma, “Rajasthan through Ages”, Vol. I, 2014, p. 122
  34. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XLI, 1975-76, p. 50
  35. Dasharatha Sharma, “Rajasthan through Ages”, Vol. I, 2014, p. 123
  36. KM Munshi, “Glory that was Gurjara Desha”, 1954, Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, p. 49
  37. The Indian Antiquary, 1884, vol. XIII, p. 70
  38. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XVIII, 1925, p. 111
  39. V.B. Mishra, “The Gurjara Pratiharas and their times”, 1966, p. 19
  40. Shanta Rani Sharma, “Origin and Rise of the Imperial Pratihāras of Rajasthan: Transitions, Trajectories and Historical Change”, 2017, p. 76
  41. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XLI, 1975-76, p. 52-55
  42. ibid.
  43. ibid. 
  44. ibib.
  45. ibid.
  46. ibid.
  47. ibid.
  48. ibid.
  49. Shanta Rani Sharma, “Origin and Rise of the Imperial Pratihāras of Rajasthan: Transitions, Trajectories and Historical Change”, 2017, p. 88
  50. ibid. p. 76, 77
  51. ibid. p. 89
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